Inwigilacja jako źródło zagrożeń chronionych osób

Krystian Krupa



The purpose of the paper is to characterize surveillance activities and threats that may result from them, and to discuss concisely anti-surveillance devices and behaviours. First, the historical outline of the phenomenon of surveillance is presented, as well as its past and present causes. Three types of detective inquiry are also discussed: white, grey and black. Then, technical and physical threats concerning surveillance, from the protected persons’ perspective, are indicated. Finally, the author presents major anti-surveillance activities related to technical and physical protection. This results in a conclusion that a good protection plan for persons should primarily include all preparatory and preventive activities as well as the usage of anti-surveillance devices so as to prevent the leakage of sensitive information and the emergence of threat to life or property. In order to effectively counteract threats resulting from surveillance, it is necessary to use both appropriate technical equipment, knowledge, and often also physical abilities.


surveillance, protection of persons, detective inquiry, anti-surveillance activities


DOI: 10.24356/SEL/27/4